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Database on Genome Related-information of Indian Plants (dGRIP)

 

    

 

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  ABOUT : The  dGRIP

Database on Genome Related-information of Indian Plants (dGRIP) 

The fundamental and practical outcome of the data base would be to consolidate the information already available and to identify gaps in our knowledge with respect to the genomes of plant wealth including cytogenetical details . When completed it would provide a comprehensive view in respect to best, moderately and least covered families, genera and species.

  This information is of critical importance concerning the crop plants and their wild relatives. Full information on crop plants and their wild relatives either growing wild in the country or exotic is being digitized. This will not only give an estimation of the extent of information about such species but also help to make use of the useful wild genes for the improvement of crop plants.

  Most of our crop plants including horticultural are recent polyploids therefore this information is crucial to decide their putative parents. Therefore this information when easily available would be highly useful for any plant researcher.

   The most precise value of the chromosome numbers is to have an estimation of polyploidy and dysploidy in any plant groups. The information on intergeneric, interspecific and infraspecific polyploid  cytotypes is crucial for proper understanding of the cytological diversity of our plant wealth. This information is of immense practical value to devise methods of not only using these cytotypes for various purposes as also to devise methods for their conservation. This is especially true for most of our forest trees and medicinal plants.     

   The comprehensive database being developed would therefore be indispensable for persons working in diverse fields i.e genetics and plant breeding, proteomics and genomics, chromosome and genetic engineering, conventional and molecular taxonomy, phytochemistry, etc. 

Parameters covered in d-GRIP

    dGRIP is a comprehensive plant database aiming to provide an easy access to students and researchers, through which chromosome numbers and genome related information of plants belonging to spermatophytes and archegoniate can be readily obtained by streamlining and refining the search criteria, all just by a click. The database incorporates data gathered from an array of journals of both national and international repute, monographs, printed books as well as hard copy resources. The Chromosome atlas of flowering plants (Darlington & Wylie, 1955), Chromosome Numbers of Flowering Plants (Fedorov, 1969), Chromosome numbers of northern plant species (Love & Love, 1948), Chromosome atlas of flowering plants of the Indian Subcontinent Vol. I and II (Kumar & Subramaniam, 1987a; 1987b), are just a few to mention. The database also derives the benefit from available online databases [www.tropicos.org/ Project/IPCN , http://data.kew.org/cvalues , http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/infolib/meta_pub/G0000003asteraceae , http://e-monocot.org, http://www.efloras.org/ , http://ccdb.tau.ac.il , http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/re search/APweb , http://www.conifers.org , http://www.chileanpcd.com , http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col , https://www.gbif.org/species , http://indiabiodiversity.org, http://biodiversity.bt , http://www.medicinalplants.in/ , http://envis.frlht.org , etc.]. These data may be used to evaluate the evolutionary pattern of chromosome number variations within and between species, to determine the basic chromosome number of clades of interest and also important phylogenetic character in the context of cytotaxonomy and species inter-relationships. The dGRIP when completed is expected to take an envious position among all the genome databases and will become indispensable for any person dealing with understanding plants and their genome diversity.

Literature Cited

Bennett, M. D. and Leitch, I. J. 2005. Plant DNA C-values database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Bir, S. S. and Verma, S. C.  2010. Chromosome atlas of the Indian Pteridophytes, 1951-2009. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.

Brach, A. R., and Song, H. 2006. eFloras: New directions for online floras exemplified by the Flora of China Project. Taxon, 55(1), 188-192.

Darlington, C. D. and Wylie, A. P.  1955. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants.London, UK: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.

Earle, C. J. 2015. The gymnosperm database.

Fedorov, A.A. 1969. Chromosome numbers of flowering plants. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad.

Goldblatt P. 1981. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1975-1978. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 6: 1-553.

Goldblatt, P and  Johnson D. 1979-. Index to plant chromosome numbers. St Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Goldblatt, P and Lowry PP. 2011. The Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN): three decades of publication by the Missouri Botanical Garden come to an end. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 98: 226-227.

Jara-Seguel P, Urrutia J. 2011 onwards. Chilean plants cytogenetic database; [cited 2013 Aug 13]. [Vina del Mar (Chile)]: JardinBotanicoNacional. Available from http://www.chileanpcd.com.

Kumar, V. and Subramaniam B. 1987b. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants of the Indian subcontinent, vol. II. Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Kumar, V. and Subramaniam, B. 1987a. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants of the Indian subcontinent, vol. I. Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Love,A and Love, D.1948. Chromosome Numbers of Northern Plant Species. Ingolfsprent

Portal, I. B. 2015. Online source: http://indiabiodiversity.org

Rice, A., Glick, L., Abadi, S., Einhorn, M., Kopelman, N. M., SalmanMinkov, A., ... and Mayrose, I. 2015. The Chromosome Counts Database (CCDB)-a community resource of plant chromosome numbers. New Phytologist, 206(1), 19-26.

Roskov, Y., Kunze, T., Paglinawan, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Culham, A., ... and Hernandez, F. 2013. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 2013 Annual Checklist.

Secretariat, G. B. I. F. 2013. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://www. gbif.org     

 Taxonomy

Preparation of checklist: The checklists of archegoniate (bryophytes andpteridophytes) and spermatophytes (gymnosperms and angiosperms) were prepared after consulting pertinent literature on respective groups. Bryophytes were listed following Dandotiya et al. (2011). Dixit's (1984) Census of the Indian Pteridophytes was utilized for cataloguing pteridophytes. Gymnosperms were enumerated following Gymnosperms of India: A Check List compiled by Singh and Srivastava (2013).

A checklist of angiosperms was made following the recent literature on angiosperms published by Botanical survey of India (BSI) (an apex body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India for conducting taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country). The literature scrutinized was Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae (Karthikeyan et al., 1989), Flora of India Vol. 13 (Hajra, et al., 1995), Flora of India Vol. 2-5 (Sharma, et al., 1993, 1993a, 1997 and 2000), Flora of India Vol. 5 (Singh et al., 2000), Flowering plants of India Dicotyledons Vol. 1 (Karthikeyan et al., 2009), and Flora of India. Vol. 23 (Balakrishnan et al., 2012). Certain flowering plant families were catalogued based on specific taxonomic treatises available for them. For instance, Pittosporaceae was listed following Fascicle 6 (Nayar et al., 1980).Fascicle 19 (Nayar et al., 1988) dealing in Alangiaceae, Burmanniaceae, Cochlospermaceae, Cornaceae, Lardizabalaceae, Lobeliaceae, Malvaceae, and Nyssaceae, Fascicle 21 on tribe Indigofereae (Leguminosae)(Hajra et al., 1995) and Fascicle 22 (Hajra and Sanjappa, 1996) pertaining to Salvadoraceae, Sonneratiaceae, Goodeniaceae, Campanulaceae, Ellisiophyllaceae and Aponogetonaceae were consulted while listing relevant taxa. Taxa belonging to Alliaceaeand Apocynaceae are based on Fascicle 23 (Singh et al., 2006) and Fascicle 24 (Jagtap et al., 1999), respectively. Eriocaulaceae were listed as per Ansari and Balakrishnan (2009). Bladderworts of India were listed following Janarthanam and Henry (1992). Orchids of India (Bose, 1999), and Legumes of India (Sanjappa, 2010) were used for charting the magnitude of Orchidaceae and Leguminosae, respectively.

Classification: Anthocerophyta have been classified following Crandall-Stolter et al. (2009) whereas for Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta classifications of Goffinet et al. (2009) and Renzaglia et al. (2009), respectively were used. Classification of pteridophytes followus PPG-I (2016). Gymnosperms have been classified as per Christenhusz et al. (2011) and angiosperms following APG IV (2016). For both gymnosperms and angiosperms classification system of Bentham and Hooker (1862) is also provided. Life-forms have been classified as per Raunkiaer (1934).

Updation of checklist: As many new taxa are added every year to the existing ones, checklists of archegoniate and spermatophytes were updated following Plant Discoveries (for the year 2008-10 and 2012-15), a seminal publication of BSI that enlists the new taxa published across the country.

Nomenclature: The nomenclature of the taxa listed in dGRIP, in most of the cases, is as per the above mentioned literature. Nevertheless, some online databases/resources such as IPNI (www.ipni.org), TROPICOS (http://tropicos.org/), The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/) and e-monocot (http://e-monocot.org/) have also been referred to list synonyms and for resolving issues pertaining to the nomenclature.

Geographical distribution and taxonomic status: For finding the range of distribution of each taxon above mentioned literature and online databases were consulted. Taxonomic status of each taxon was assessed using data from BSI publication and the IUCN Red List of Threatened species available online (http://www.iucnredlist.org/).

Literature Cited

Dandotiya D., Govindapyari H., Suman Shantanu and Uniyal P. L. 2011. Checklist of the bryophytes of India. Archive for Bryology.

Dixit R. D. 1984. Census of the Indian Pteridophytes Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.

Singh N. P. and Srivastava R. C. 2013. Gymnosperms of  India: A Check ListBotanical Survey of India,Kolkata,

Hooker J. D. 1883. The Flora of British India. Vol. 1-7. L. Reeve and Co., London.

Cooke T. H. 1903. The Flora of Presidency of Bombay Vol. 1-3. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Karthikeyan S. and Jain S. K.  1989. Florae IndicaeEnumeratio: MonocotyledonaeBotanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Sharma B. D., Balakrishnan N. P. and Sanjappa M.  1993. Flora of India Papaveraceae - Caryophyllaceae Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Sharma B. D. and Sanjappa M. 1993.Flora of India Portulacaceae - Ixonanthaceae Vol. 3.Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hajra P. K, Nair V. J. and Daniel P. 1997. Flora of India Malpighiaceae -Dichapetalaceae Vol. 4.Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Singh N. P., Vohra J. N. Hajra P. K, and Singh D. K.  2000. Flora of India Olacaceae -Connaraceae Vol. 5.Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hajra, P. K.,Rao R.R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P.  1995. Flora of India Asteraceae. Vol. 13.Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Balakrishnan N.P., Chakrabarty T., Sanjappa M., Lakshminarsimhan P. and Singh P. 2012 Flora of India.Loranthaceae - Daphniphyllaceae Vol. 23. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Karthikeyan S. Sanjappa M. and Moorthy S. 2009. Flowering Plants Of India Dicotyledons Acanthaceae - Avicenniaceae Vol. 1.Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Nayar M. P. and Giri G. S. 1980.Fascicles of Flora of India.Pittosporaceae Fascicle 6. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.

Nayar M. P., Thothathri K., M. Sanjappa 1988. Fascicles of Flora of India.Fascicle 19, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hajra P. K., Sashtry A. R. K., Sanjappa M. 1995. Fascicles of Flora of India.Fascicle 21 Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hajra P. K., Sanjappa M. 1996. Fascicles of Flora of India.Fascicle 22.Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Jagtap A. P and Singh N. P. 1999 Fascicles of Flora of India.Fascicle 24 Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Singh N.P. and Sanjappa M. 2006. Flora of India: Alliaceae: Genus-Allium. Fascicle 23.Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Sanjappa M., 2010 Legumes of India.Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Dehra Dun.

Bose T. K., 1999. Orchids of India.NayaProkash Publication

Janarthanam M. K. and Henry A. N.1992 Bladderworts of India Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, Combatore

Sanjappa M. And Singh P. 2008. Plant Discoveries 2007, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Sanjappa M. 2009. Plant Discoveries 2008.Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Sanjappa M. and Singh Paramjit, 2010 Plant Discoveries 2009, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Singh P., Singh D.K and Dash S.S. 2012. Plant Discoveries 2011, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Singh P., Singh D.K and Dash S.S. 2013. Plant Discoveries 2012, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Singh P. and Dash S.S. 2014. Plant Discoveries 2013, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Singh P. and Dash S.S. 2015. Plant Discoveries 2014, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Christenhusz Maarten J. M., Zhang Xian-Chun and Schneider Harald. 2011. A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7-54

APG 1V. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society181:1-20.

Crandall - Stotler B., Stotler  R. E. and Long D. G. 2009. Phylogeny and classification of the Marchantiophyta. Edinburgh  Journal of Botany 66 (1): 155-198.

Goffinet, B., Buck W.R. and Shaw A.J.. 2009. Morphology and classification of the Bryophyta. Pages 55-138. In: B. Goffinet & A.J. Shaw (eds.), Bryophyte Biology, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.

Renzaglia, K.S, Villarreal, J.C. and Duff, R.J. (2009) New insights into morphology, anatomy, and systematics of hornworts. In:

Goffinet, B, & Shaw, A. J. (Eds), Bryophyte Biology. 2nd ed Cambridge University Press. UK. 565 pp

Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life-forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford University Press, London.

Ansari R, Balakrishnan NP. 2009. The family Eriocaulaceae in India. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.

Web resources consulted

www.ipni.org

www.tropicos.org

www.theplantlist.org

e-monocot.org

http://www.iucnredlist.org/    

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

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